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Alward, R. D., J. K. Detling, and D. G. Milchunas, Grassland vegetation changes and nocturnal global warming, Science, 283, 229-231, 1999.
Anderson, J. M., The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests, Ecological Applications, 1, 326-347, 1991.
Barkema, A., and M. Drabenstott, Consolidation and changes in heartland agriculture, in Economic Forces Shaping the Rural Heartland, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 1996.
Bethke, R. W., and T. D. Nudds, Effects of climate change and land use on duck abundance in Canadian Prairie-park lands, Ecological Applications, 5, 588-600, 1995.
Burke, I. C., T. G. F. Kittel, W. K. Lauenroth, P. Snook, C. M. Yonker, and W. J. Parton, Regional analysis of the Central Great Plains: Sensitivity to climate variability, BioScience, 41, 685-692, 1990.
Cole, C. V., J. W. B. Stewart, D. S. Ojima, W. J. Parton, and D. S. Schimel, Modeling land use effects on soil organic matter dynamics in the North American Great Plains, in Ecology of Arable Land - Perspectives and Challenges, Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, edited by M. Clarholm and L. Bergstrom, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 39, pp. 89-98, 1989.
Cole, C. V., I. C. Burke, W. J. Parton, D. S. Schimel, D. S. Ojima, and J. W. B. Stewart, Analysis of historical changes in soil fertility and organic mater levels of the North American Great Plains, in Challenges in Dryland Agriculture, A Global Perspective, Proceedings of the International Conference on Dryland Farming, August 1988, edited by P. W. Unger, T. V. Sneed, W. R. Jordon, and R. Jensen, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, pp. 436-438, 1990 .
Donofrio, C., and D. S. Ojima, The Great Plains today, in Climate Change Impacts on the Great Plains, Office of Science and Technology Policy and United States Global Change Research Program Workshop, compiled by D. S. Ojima, W. E. Easterling, and C. Donofrio, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp. 1-24, 1997.
Drabenstott, M., and T. R. Smith, The changing economy of the rural heartland, in Economic Forces Shaping the Rural Heartland , Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, 1996.
Gutmann, M., Social and demographic changes in the Central Great Plains, paper presented at the Central Great Plains Regional Assessment of Climate Change Impacts Workshop, Loveland, Colorado, March 22-24, 1999, Sponsored by the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, and the US Department of Energy, 1999.
Haas, H. J., C. E. Evans, and E. F. Miles, Nitrogen and carbon changes in Great Plains soils influenced by cropping and soil treatments, USDA Technical Bulletin 1164, 1957.
Hahn, G. L., and T. L. Mader, Heat waves in relation to thermoregulation, feeding behavior, and mortality of feedlot cattle, Proceedings of 5th International Livestock Environment Symposium. Vol. I, pp. 563-571, American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1997.
Hahn, G.L., and J. A. Morgan, Potential consequences of climate change on ruminant livestock production, paper presented at the Climate Change Impacts on Rangeland Systems Symposium, Society for Range Management annual meeting, Omaha, Nebraska, February 25-26, 1999, Sponsored by the Central Great Plains Assessment and the Department of Energy, 1999.
Hayden, B. P., Regional climate and the distribution of tall grass prairie, in Grassland Dynamics, edited by A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett, and S. L. Collins, Oxford University Press, Inc, New York, New York, US, p. 19-34, 1998.
Jenny, H., The Soil Resource, Origin and Behavior, Ecological Studies, vol. 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1980.
Karl et al., Trends in average annual temperature and average precipitation over the 1895 to 1995 period. Data are the US Historical Climatology Network stations averaged in each of the 344 Climate Divisions. Analysis prepared for National Assessment Synthesis Team, 1999.
Kunkel, K., K. Andsager, and D. R. Easterling, Long-term trends in extreme precipitation events over the conterminous United States and Canada, Journal of Climate, 12, 2515-2527, 1999.
Lal, R., J. M. Kimble, R. F. Follett, and C. V. Cole, The Potential of US cropland to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect, Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, Michigan, 1998.
Larson, D. L., Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the Northern Great Plains, American Midland Naturalist, 131, 330-346, 1994.
Leitch, J. A., F. L. Leistritz, and D. A. Bangsund, Economic effect of leafy spurge in the Upper Great Plains: Methods, models, and results, Agricultural Economics Report No. 316, North Dakota State University, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1994.
Mack, M., C., and C. M. D'Antonio, Impacts of biological invasions on disturbance regimes, Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 195-198, 1998.
Malcolm, J. R., and A. Markham, Climate change threats to the National Parks and protected areas of the United States, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, 1998.
Miller, K., Climate variability, climate change, and western water, in Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 1997.
Muhs, D. R., and P. B. Maat, The potential response of Great Plains eolian sands to greenhouse warming and precipitation reduction on the Great Plains of the USA. Journal of Arid Environments, 25, 351-361, 1993.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration and University of Texas at El Paso, Tilting the Balance. Climate Variability and Water Resource Management in the Southwest [PDF]. Exploring Climate Change and Its Consequences, Southwest Border Regional Workshop on Climate Variability and Change, University of Texas at El Paso, March 2-4, 1998, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, 1998.
National Research Council, Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1992.
Natural Resource Conservation Service, Northern Plains Regional Office, State of the Land for the Northern Plains Region, USDA NRCS, Northern Plains Regional Office, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1996.
Ojima, D. S., L. Garcia, E. Eigaali, K. Miller, T. G. F. Kittel, and J. Lackett, Potential climate change impacts on water resources in the Great Plains, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 35, 1443-1454, 1999.
Ojima, D. S., W. E. Easterling, C. Donofrio (Compilers), Climate Change Impacts on the Great Plains, Workshop Report, May 27-29, 1997, Sponsored by Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology Policy, US Global Change Research Program, and Colorado State University, College of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1997.
Opie, J., The Law Of The Land: Two Hundred Years Of American Farmland Policy, University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, 1987.
Ostlie, W. R., R. E. Schneider, J. M. Aldrich, T. M. Faust, R. L. B. McKim, S. J. Chaplin, The Status of Biodiversity in the Great Plains, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, 1997.
Parton, W. J., D. S. Schimel, C. V. Cole, and D. S. Ojima, Analysis of factors controlling soil organic matter levels in Great Plains grasslands, Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 1173-1179, 1987.
Parton, W. J., D. S. Schimel, D. S. Ojima, and C. V. Cole, A general model for soil organic matter dynamics: Sensitivity to litter chemistry, texture, and management, in Quantitative Modeling of Soil Forming Processes, edited by R. B. Bryant and R.W. Arnold, pp. 147-167, Soil Science Society of America Special Publication 39, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, 1994.
Peterson, G. A., and C.V. Cole, Productivity of Great Plains Soils: Past, Present, and future, in Conservation of Great Plains Ecosystems, edited by S. R. Johnson, and A. Bouzaher, pp. 325-342, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, 1995.
Schimel, D. S., W. J. Parton, T. G. F. Kittel, D. S. Ojima, and C. V. Cole, Grassland biogeochemistry: Links to atmospheric processes, Climate Change, 17, 13-25, 1990.
Schimel, D. S., T. G. F. Kittel, and W. J. Parton, Terrestrial biogeochemical cycles: global interactions with the atmosphere and hydrology, Tellus, 43AB, 188-203, 1991a.
Schimel, D. S., T. G. F. Kittel, A. K. Knapp, T. R. Seastedt, W. J. Parton, and V. B. Brown, Physiological interactions along resource gradients in a tallgrass prairie, Ecology, 72, 672-684, 1991b.
Seielstad, G., (Ed.), Proceedings, Northern Great Plains Regional Workshop on Climate Variability and Climate Change, University of North Dakota, Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium, 1998.
Seielstad, G., Progress report for a public access resource center (PARC) empowering the general public to use EOSDIS -- Implementation, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota, 1999.
Skold, M. D., Agricultural systems and economic characteristics of the Great Plains, in Climate Change Impacts on the Great Plains, compiled by D. S. Ojima, W. E. Easterling, and C. Donofrio, Office of Science and Technology Policy and US Global Change Research Program Workshop, pp. 85-88, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 1997.
Solley, W. B., Estimates of water use in the western United States in 1990 and water-use trends 1960-90, in Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 1997.
Sorenson, L.G., R. Goldberg, T. L. Root, and M. G. Anderson, Potential effects of global warming on waterfowl populations breeding in the northern Great Plains, Climatic Change, 40, 343-369, 1998.
Stern, P.C., and W. E. Easterling, (Eds.), Making Climate Forecasts Matter, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1999.
Stohlgren, T. J., K. A. Bull, Y. Otsuki, C. A.Villa, and L. Lee, Riparian zones as havens for exotic plant species in the central grasslands, Plant Ecology, 138, 113-125, 1998.
Stohlgen, T. J., D. Binkley, G. W. Chong, M. A. Kalkhan, L. D. Schell, K. A. Bull, Y. Otsuki, G. Newman, M. Bashkin, and Y. Son, Exotic plants species invade hot spots of native plant diversity, Ecological Monographs, 69, 25-46, 1999.
Tiessen, H., L.W.B. Stewart, and J.R. Bettany, Cultivation effects on the concentration and amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in grassland soils, Agronomy Journal, 74, 831-835, 1982.
US Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Analysis Division, June 1998.
VEMAP members, Vegetation/ecosystem modeling and analysis project: comparing biogeography and biogeochemistry models in a continental-scale study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to climate change and CO2 doubling, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 477-437, 1995.
Vitousek, P. M., C. M. D'Antinio, L. L. Loope, and R. Westbrooks, Biological invasions as global environmental change, American Scientist, 84, 468-478, 1996.
Westbrooks, R. G., Invasive plants: changing the landscape of America: fact book, Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds, Washington, DC, 1998.
Wilhite, D., Improving drought management in the West, in Report to the Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia, 1997.
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